Health reports are manually curated gene reports written in plain language, to help you easily understand the health associations of your genetic polymorphisms. They are created by professionals in the field. A lot of research goes into developing these reports, so a monthly subscription is required. Subscribers receive new or updated curated gene reports periodically. This subscription is optional and separate from the genetic variance reporting tools.
All Livewello Gene App users automatically get over 20 free reports, many of which are related to pharmacogenomics. They include several drugs metabolized by CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 genes. Pharmacogenomics involves working with your physician to determine which medications will work best with your body based upon your gene results. Instead of going through the trouble of testing individual genes at different labs, people who have run their 23andMe or Ancestry Gene test can now use Livewello's Gene App to harness this information from their raw data results.
Livewello Gene App services have NOT changed. All your current Livewello services and tools remain the same. The $19.95 one-time fee for the gene variance app remains unchanged, and all other Livewello genetic tools including SNP Sandbox, GWAS tools, and the Gene library, remain available to owners of the gene variance app.
Your free access to the Gene Library and SNP Sandbox tools are not affected by this subscription. You still have free access to get your Gene reports for all the 600,000 SNPs in your Raw Data. Updates to SNPs in your in your 23andMe raw data are still free with the Livewello Gene App. This means that whenever 23andMe adds more SNPs to your raw data, Livewello still gives you free reports for those.
The Health reports tool is currently only available for Livewello users who have uploaded a genetic raw data file to their Livewello account. To take advantage of the 20 free reports you get from this new App tool, new and existing users will need to upload their raw data file. If you run your gene reports using a direct data sync with 23andMe, you will need to reset your gene app, and upload a raw data file. We have provided a single use gene app reset link for this purpose.
Our goal with this tool is to provide an ongoing resource of genome-health associations, pharmacogenomic and nutrigenomics information, written in plain and simple language. We will remain committed to translating as much evidence based genomic research as possible for our users. We hope to use this platform to help our users navigate this extremely complex field of human genetics and its utility for health and wellness.
The COMT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase. The Val108/158Met variant of the COMT gene has been associated with disorders that affect thought and emotion. A functional polymorphism in this gene has also been demonstrated to be related to processing of emotional stimuli and pain regulation in healthy subjects. Data shows that the val158met polymorphism in the COMT gene contributes significantly to differences in neural pain processing: in healthy people, this polymorphism was more related to cognitive aspects of pain processing. Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) - a condition associated with reduced pain sensitivity, showed an association with activity in brain regions related to affective pain processing.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are acid reflux medications that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in the lining of your stomach. They are usually prescribed by doctors for the treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux disease (GERD) - a condition in which food or liquid moves up from the stomach to the esophagus. The CYP2C19 gene encodes an enzyme that metabolizes PPIs and polymorphism of this gene affects the therapeutic outcome of GERD and duodenal ulcers. PPIs are also used in combination with other prescriptions in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infections. People with little or no CYP2C19 activity, who metabolize PPIs more slowly (slow metabolizers), demonstrated significantly higher eradication rates (of H. Pylori) compared to extensive metabolizers.
Warfarin is used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger in your blood and blood vessels. It is prescribed for people with certain types of irregular heartbeat, people with prosthetic (replacement or mechanical) heart valves, and people who have suffered a heart attack. Warfarin is also used to treat or prevent venous thrombosis (swelling and blood clot in a vein) and pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lung). Warfarin is in a class of medications called anticoagulants ('blood thinners'). It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood. Variations of the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes can decrease a persons ability to break down warfarin, which causes the drug's effect to last longer, resulting in the need for lower doses.
Plavix keeps the platelets in your blood from clotting. It is used alone or with aspirin to prevent serious or life-threatening problems with the heart and blood vessels in people who have had a stroke, heart attack, or severe chest pain. Plavix is metabolized in the liver by enzymes encoded by the CYP2C19 gene. Decreased function of this gene leads to lower levels of the active drug which reduces it's effectiveness in preventing blood clots.
Sulfonylureas are drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes. They lower blood sugar by causing the pancreas to produce insulin (a natural substance that is needed to break down sugar in the body) and helping the body use insulin efficiently. Sulfonylureas are broken down in the body by an enzyme called CYP2C9 which is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene. Mutations in this gene can lead to reduced ability to clear sulfonylurea drugs from the body.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with infected blood. It can also spread through sex with an infected person and from mother to baby during childbirth. The infection can last a lifetime and may lead to scarring of the liver or liver cancer. Medicines sometimes help, but side effects can be a problem. Hepatitis C is commonly treated with a combination of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin. Genetic mutations near the interleukin 28B (IL28B) gene could identify people with chronic hepatitis C for whom these drugs are less likely to succeed.
Humans have an innate preference for sweet taste, but the degree of liking for sweet foods varies individually. Studies of genes (FGF21 and FTO) which play important roles in metabolism and body mass, identified genetic markers associated with the preference of sweet foods over salty or savory foods. These studies performed in people of European ancestry, showed that sweet taste preferences are partly inherited.
Tramadol is used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain. Tramadol extended-release tablets and capsules are only used by people who are expected to need medication to relieve pain around-the-clock . Tramadol is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain.
The VDR gene provides instructions for making a protein called vitamin D receptor (VDR), which allows the body to respond appropriately to vitamin D. This vitamin can be acquired from foods in the diet or made in the body with help from sunlight. Vitamin D is involved in maintaining the proper balance of several minerals in the body, including calcium and phosphate, which are essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth. One of vitamin D's major roles is to control the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the intestines into the bloodstream. Vitamin D is also involved in several processes unrelated to bone formation.1 Osteoporosis is a condition caused by low bone density which makes your bones weak and more likely to break. Risk factors include: getting older (over 50), being small and thin, being a white or Asian woman, smoking and lack of exercise. Low blood levels of calcium may cause bone disease. Calcitriol is a form of vitamin D that is used to treat and prevent low levels of calcium in the blood of patients whose kidneys or parathyroid glands are not working normally. Response to both calcium and calcitriol therapy is dependent on genetic variation at the VDR locus. Vitamin D receptor genotypes influence the success of therapies for osteoporosis such as calcitriol. 1
Systemic lupus erythematosus (Lupus) is a chronic disease that causes inflammation in the tissues which provide strength and flexibility to structures throughout the body. The signs and symptoms of Lupus vary among affected individuals, and can involve many organs and systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system. Lupus is one of a large group of conditions called autoimmune disorders that occur when the immune system attacks the body's own tissues and organs. It affects predominantly women of child-bearing age and has population differences in both disease prevalence and severity. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in the disease through the use of association and family studies. Most of the genes associated with Lupus are involved in immune system function. Sex hormones and a variety of environmental factors including viral infections, diet, stress, chemical exposures, and sunlight are also thought to play a role in triggering this complex disorder. About 10 percent of Lupus cases are thought to be triggered by drug exposure, and more than 80 drugs that may be involved have been identified.
Vitamin B12 is used for treating and preventing vitamin B12 deficiency, a condition in which vitamin B12 levels in the blood are too low. It is also used to treat pernicious anemia, a serious type of anemia that is due to vitamin B12 deficiency and is found mostly in older people. For this purpose, people use either a supplement that is taken by mouth or a gel that is applied inside the nose. Vitamin B12 is also used for memory loss; Alzheimer s disease; boosting mood, energy, concentration and the immune system; and slowing aging. It is also used for heart disease, lowering high homocysteine levels (which may contribute to heart disease), male infertility, diabetes, sleep disorders, depression, mental disorders, weak bones (osteoporosis), swollen tendons, AIDS, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergies, a skin disease called vitiligo, preventing cervical and other cancers, and skin infections. Some people use vitamin B12 for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig s disease), multiple sclerosis, preventing the eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Lyme disease and gum disease. It is also used for ringing in the ears, bleeding, liver and kidney disease, and for protection against the poisons and allergens in tobacco smoke. Polymorphisms in the FUT2 gene are associated with Vitamin b12 blood levels.
The MTHFR gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase - a key enzyme in the folate metabolism pathway which regulates DNA methylation, synthesis, and repair. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene have been studied as possible risk factors for a variety of common conditions. These include heart disease, stroke, hypertension, high blood pressure during pregnancy, glaucoma, psychiatric disorders, and certain types of cancer. Low plasma folate and its derivatives have been linked with depressive disorders in studies dating back over 30 years. A recent study showed that the T variant of MTHFR C677T was significantly more common in people with a history of depressive disorder, even with normal levels of folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12. 2
The COMT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase. In the brain, catechol-O-methyltransferase helps break down certain neurotransmitters - chemical messengers that conduct signals from one nerve cell to another. Catechol-O-methyltransferase is particularly important in an area at the front of the brain called the prefrontal cortex, which organizes and coordinates information from other parts of the brain. This region is involved with personality, planning, inhibition of behaviors, abstract thinking, emotion, and working (short-term) memory. To function efficiently, the prefrontal cortex requires signaling by neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Catechol-O-methyltransferase helps maintain appropriate levels of these neurotransmitters in this part of the brain.
Vitamin B6 is used for preventing and treating low levels of pyridoxine (pyridoxine deficiency) and the tired blood (anemia) that may result. It is also used for heart disease; high cholesterol; reducing blood levels of homocysteine, a chemical that might be linked to heart disease; and helping clogged arteries stay open after a balloon procedure to unblock them (angioplasty). Women use vitamin B6 for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and other menstruation problems, "morning sickness" (nausea and vomiting) in early pregnancy, stopping milk flow after childbirth, depression related to pregnancy or using birth control pills, and symptoms of menopause. Vitamin B6 is also used for Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Down syndrome, autism, diabetes and related nerve pain, sickle cell anemia, migraine headaches, asthma, carpal tunnel syndrome, night leg cramps, muscle cramps, arthritis, allergies, acne and various other skin conditions, and infertility. The NBPF3 gene has been associated with vitamin B6. People who have a homozygous mutation in this gene tend to have lower levels of vitamin B6.
Multiple factors influence the rate at which alcohol is metabolized, including ethnicity, sex, body size and polymorphisms in genes involved in the breakdown of alcohol. One study1 showed that gender and body weight contributed the most to explaining variability in alcohol metabolism. Polymorphisms in a variant of the ADH1B gene, also had a significant, though modest, effect on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol.
Antidepressants are prescription medications that treat depression. They work to balance some of the natural chemicals in our brains. It may take several weeks for them to help. There are several types of antidepressants. Genetic variations can play a role in how we transport and metabolize antidepressant drugs. This report is based on a study1 which found two SNPs in the ABCB1 gene that were associated with the likelihood that a person's depression symptoms would improve after taking one of four antidepressants: amitriptyline (Elavil), paroxetine (Paxil), venlafaxine (Effexor), or citalopram (Celexa). ABCB1 encodes a protein that is involved in carrying substances across the blood-brain barrier, which protects the central nervous system from potentially dangerous substances in the rest of the body.
Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. It is the synthetic form of folate that is found in supplements and added to fortified foods. Folate is a generic term for both naturally occurring folate found in foods and folic acid. Folic acid is not stored in the body and you need a continuous supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat. Folate occurs naturally in dark green leafy vegetables, dried beans and peas (legumes), citrus fruits and juices. One of the most important uses of folate in the body, is as a precursor of methyl groups. Methyl groups are needed for many biochemical reactions in the body, and also for turning genes on and off. (Epigenetics) The MTHFR gene encodes an enzyme (Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) that is critical in the metabolism of folate. People who are deficient in this enzyme are unable to convert folic acid to its active forms in the body, and as a result, have a build up of toxic by-products such as Homocysteine, which has been associated with heart disease and dementia. A Heterozygous mutation decreases the activity of this enzyme by 35% while a Homozygous mutation decreases its activity by 70% percent. However, most people with a mutation remain unaffected and do not experience symptoms.
Moderate caffeine intake (less than 6 cups/day) has been associated with less depressive symptoms, fewer cognitive failures, and lower risk of suicide. Conversely, in rare cases high doses of caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The anxiety effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.1
The Kidneys filter wastes and excess water out of your blood to make urine. They also keep the body's chemical balance, help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged and can't filter blood as they should. This damage can cause wastes to build up in your body. It can also cause other problems that can harm your health. CKD can get worse over time and may lead to kidney failure. The only treatment options for kidney failure are dialysis or a kidney transplantation. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. Other causes include genetic problems, injuries, or medicines. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) have provided unbiased information implicating MTHFS as a candidate gene for kidney disease. Meta-analysis of a large study (Framingham Heart Study) showed a variant of the MTHFS gene was significantly associated with CKD. In this study, Caucasians with the C allele of MTHFS rs6495446 were more likely than people without this variant, to have CKD.
Oxycodone is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Oxycodone extended-release tablets are used to relieve severe pain in people who are expected to need pain medication around the clock for a long time and who cannot be treated with other medications. It is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics and works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain.
Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucus membranes, and skin. It is also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A promotes good vision, especially in low light. It may also be needed for reproduction and breast-feeding. High vitamin A foods include sweet potatoes, carrots, dark leafy greens, winter squashes, lettuce, dried apricots, cantaloupe, bell peppers, fish, liver, and tropical fruits. Carotenoids are dark-colored dyes (pigments) found in plant foods that can turn into a form of vitamin A. There are more than 500 known carotenoids. One such carotenoid is beta-carotene. The BCM01 gene is associated with the conversion of beta-carotene from plant sources to vitamin A. People who are heterozygous for certain versions of the BCM01 gene have 69% reduced capacity to metabolize vitamin A to its active form - retinal Vitamin A deficiency (decreased serum vitamin A) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased serum beta-carotene. This results from decreased conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency has been implicated in Macular degeneration, blindness, and other eye disorders but has numerous other health implications, even on the immune system.
Oral contraceptives may increase the chance of having a heart attack, a stroke, or a serious blood clot. This risk is further increased in people with thrombophilia, which is the result of a mutation in Factor V Leiden. Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is an inherited disorder of blood clotting. which is an increased tendency to form abnormal blood clots that can block blood vessels. People with factor V Leiden thrombophilia have a higher than average risk of developing a type of blood clot called a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). DVTs occur most often in the legs, although they can also occur in other parts of the body, including the brain, eyes, liver, and kidneys. Factor V Leiden thrombophilia also increases the risk that clots will break away from their original site and travel through the bloodstream. These clots can lodge in the lungs, where they are known as pulmonary emboli. Although factor V Leiden thrombophilia increases the risk of blood clots, only about 10 percent of individuals with the factor V Leiden mutation ever develop abnormal clots. The factor V Leiden mutation is associated with a slightly increased risk of pregnancy loss (miscarriage). Women with this mutation are two to three times more likely to have multiple (recurrent) miscarriages or a pregnancy loss during the second or third trimester. Some research suggests that the factor V Leiden mutation may also increase the risk of other complications during pregnancy, including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia), slow fetal growth, and early separation of the placenta from the uterine wall (placental abruption). However, the association between the factor V Leiden mutation and these complications has not been confirmed. Most women with factor V Leiden thrombophilia have normal pregnancies.
Statins are drugs used to lower cholesterol. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much in your blood, it can stick to the walls of your arteries and narrow or even block them. Statins are relatively safe for most people. But they can also cause serious muscle problems. Some statins also interact adversely with other drugs. You may have fewer side effects with one statin drug than another. A study1 showed that statin intolerance which is manifested primarily through muscle symptoms (myopathy) is associated with genomic variation in COQ2 and thus perhaps with the CoQ10 pathway.
Antidepressants are prescription medications that treat depression. They work to balance some of the natural chemicals in our brains. It may take several weeks for them to help. There are several types of antidepressants. Antidepressants may cause mild side effects that usually do not last long. These may include headache, nausea, sleep problems, restlessness, and sexual problems. 20-70% of people taking a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) experience sexual side effects.
Acetaldehyde is a toxic substance which occurs naturally in coffee, bread, ripe fruit, and is produced by plants. It is also a breakdown product of alcohol and may be contributing factor to hangovers from alcohol consumption. People with a normally functioning aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2) are able to convert acetaldehyde into a harmless substance called acetate. Some people have a mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2) that prevents this, resulting in a build-up of acetaldehyde and in some cases, increased risk for esophageal cancer. Other factors that increase risk of esophageal cancer include smoking cigarettes, heavy alcohol consumption, chronic acid reflux disease and advanced age. The odds of esophageal cancer for heavy drinkers with the ALDH2 mutation is much higher than in those without the mutation who do not smoke or drink.4
Zofran (Ondansetron) is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural substance that may cause nausea and vomiting. Zofran is broken down in the liver by on of the Cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2D6 - which metabolizes approximately 25% of current drugs. Certain versions of CYP2D6 result in the poor metabolizer phenotype, characterized by a decreased ability to metabolize the enzyme's substrates.
The MAOA gene encodes Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), an enzyme in the brain that breaks down neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Neurotransmitters play a key role in mood, arousal, emotions and impulse control. People with high levels of this enzyme have less neurotransmitters and people with low levels of the enzyme have more neurotransmitters. Variants of the MAOA gene are categorized as low-activity or high-activity. These two MAOA versions correlate with different behavioral tendencies. Low-activity variants are thought to lead to reduced levels of MAOA in the brain, possibly shifting mood by changing serotonin levels. High activity variants lead to increased levels of MAOA in the brain resulting in less neurotransmitters. Individuals with the low activity MAOA gene, when faced with social exclusion showed higher levels of aggression than those with the high activity MAOA gene.4 Low activity MAOA could significantly predict aggressive behavior in a high provocation situation, but was less associated with aggression in a low provocation situation. 5
Metformin is used alone or with other medications, including insulin, to treat type 2 diabetes. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. Metformin also increases your body's response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. Metformin is not used to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood).
The Livewello Gene app is intended for use primarily by physicians and other professionals concerned with genetic disorders, by genetics researchers, and by advanced students in science and medicine. While the Livewello Gene app is open to the public, users seeking information about a personal medical or genetic condition are urged to consult with a qualified physician for diagnosis and for answers to personal questions.
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